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Interacting with nature improves cognition and affect for individuals with depression

Key Message

There are cognitive and affective benefits of interacting with nature to individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) and therefore, interacting with nature may be useful clinically as a supplement to existing treatments for MDD.


Berman, Marc G. et al. (2012). Interacting with nature improves cognition and affect for individuals with depression. Journal of Affective Disorders. 140(3): 300–305. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2012.03.012


This study aimed to explore whether walking in nature may be beneficial for individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). Healthy adults demonstrate significant cognitive gains after nature walks, but it was unclear whether those same benefits would be achieved in a depressed sample as walking alone in nature might induce rumination, thereby worsening memory and mood.

Twenty individuals diagnosed with MDD participated in this study. At baseline, mood and short term memory span were assessed using the PANAS and the backwards digit span (BDS) task, respectively. Participants were then asked to think about an unresolved negative autobiographical event to prime rumination, prior to taking a 50-min walk in either a natural or urban setting. After the walk, mood and short-term memory span were reassessed. The following week, participants returned to the lab and repeated the entire procedure, but walked in the location not visited in the first session (i.e., a counterbalanced within-subjects design).



Participants exhibited significant increases in memory span after the nature walk relative to the urban walk, p < .001, ηp2 = .53 (a large effect-size). Participants also showed increases in mood, but the mood effects did not correlate with the memory effects, suggesting separable mechanisms and replicating previous work.

Benefit Statements / Outcomes

Leadership Provided By:

  • Leisure Information Network (LIN)
  • Alberta Recreation and Parks Association

On Behalf Of:

  • Canadian Parks and Recreation Association (CPRAA)

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