Physical Activity and Type 2 Diabetes
Higher levels of leisure time physical activity were associated with substantially lower incidence of type 2 diabetes in the general population.
Smith, Andrea D. et al. (2016). Physical activity and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Diabetologia. 1-19. DOI:10.1007/s00125-016-4079-0
Inverse associations between physical activity (PA) and type 2 diabetes mellitus are well known. However, the shape of the dose–response relationship is still uncertain. This review synthesises results from longitudinal studies in general populations and uses non-linear models of the association between PA and incident type 2 diabetes.
Our results suggest an overall non-linear relationship; using the cubic spline model we found a risk reduction of 26% (95% CI 20%, 31%) for type 2 diabetes among those who achieved 11.25 MET h/week (equivalent to 150 min/week of moderate activity) relative to inactive individuals. Achieving twice this amount of PA was associated with a risk reduction of 36% (95% CI 27%, 46%), with further reductions at higher doses (60 MET h/week, risk reduction of 53%). Results for the MMET h/week dose–response curve were similar for moderate intensity PA, but benefits were greater for higher intensity PA and smaller for lower intensity activity.