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Using Recreation to Curb Extremism. Sports and recreation have been proven to be effective means of

Key Message

Recreational sport programs help youth establish peaceful and productive relations with their neighbors,  and can be one of the most dynamic groups in society because sports, being played globally, encompass all race, religion, ethnicity, gender and class. Youth and youth sport leaders play vital roles in transforming dangerous and violent conflict situations associated with terrorism across the world.

Source

Jamieson, L., & Ross, C. (2007). Using Recreation to Curb Extremism. Sports and recreation have been proven to be effective means of addressing peace-building in the Middle East. Bloomington, Indiana: Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Studies at Indiana University.

Purpose

If young people—particularly young men—are uprooted, intolerant, jobless, and have few opportunities for positive engagement, they represent a ready pool of recruits for ethnic, religious, political extremists seeking to mobilize violence” (USAID, 2005).
In the wake of Sept. 11, there is increased interest on the part of the U.S. State Department to help stabilize societies and develop programs designed to help citizens become more aware of a sector of the world that is little understood—the Islamic nations of the Middle East. This interest has yielded many forms of cross-cultural exchanges, the extent of which has provided opportunities to look at the unique needs of many nations.
One such need has been in the area of youth recreational sport development that can to serve as a form of intervention to provide youth in nations of the Middle East with positive and constructive opportunities.
Colliard and Henley (2005) report that “many organizations have been turning to sports and play programs to help the young by addressing social problems and facilitating peace building” (2005).
This kind of intervention can incorporate various models and initiatives. USAID (2005) suggests that youth service institutions need to provide group-based activities (sports, community service, education) that give participants a positive identity, group empowerment and acquisition of leadership, teamwork and self-governance skills under adult supervision (2005).
“The true effectiveness of using sport as an intervention to help children overcome suffering and distress is not in competition but in cooperation, not in winning or losing, but in the process of participating in a supportive group” (Colliard & Henley, 2005).
Recreational sport programs should emphasize and focus on the total sport experience rather than just playing the game (Smith & Smoll, 1996).

Evidence

Prevention:
Weatherburn and Baker (1999) reported results from an Australian study that examined self-reported crimes committed by more than 5,000 secondary-school students. Referred to as transient offenders, these individuals committed crimes that included primary (first offender) and secondary (persistent offender) crimes such as assault during sport, assaults after sport, shoplifting, moped theft, malicious damage, receiving or selling stolen goods, and breaking and entering.
The authors concluded that communities should establish long-term prevention through early childhood intervention as well as to use intelligent policing through development of a close partnership with the community.
In terms of the role of sport activities for young people and their impact on crime reduction, Lindval (2003) discovered a relationship between certain forms of public spending for recreation and leisure and crime reduction.
Social Exclusion:
A study by Holden and Wilde (2004) about the role of soccer in the United Kingdom found that several community schemes showed the community-building features of one premier club. It was found that this club may involve more individuals who might otherwise be excluded from sport if the club were not in existence.
It was also concluded that “soccer clearly has great cultural value for some of the young people involved in the schemes we are currently examining.”
A Canadian study underscores similar impacts related to social exclusion (Saskatchewan Culture, Youth and Recreation Branch, 2003). It was suggested that participation in recreation activities can provide an antidote to antisocial behavior in youth through the development of social skills, linkage with positive adult role models, development of cognitive skills, and increasing self-confidence and self-esteem.
Witt and Crompton (2002) provided examples of how elements of positive youth development are being incorporated into park and recreation programs across the United States to enable youth to overcome risks factors in their lives. Arai, Caldwell, Niepoth and Lobo (2003) further suggest that “the lives of many of the world’s children and adolescents continue to be disrupted by war, violence, dislocation, poverty, poor health, abuse, exploitation and other negative influences.
When this happens, young people experience the ultimate constraint to positive development, transformative experiences and other benefits of leisure.”
CONCLUSION
Recreational sport programs help youth establish peaceful and productive relations with their neighbors, in the United States and across the world. According to the United Nations, “young people (ages 15-24) make up 1.2 billion of the world’s population” (United Nations, 2005). Because of this staggering number of youth, youth sports can represent one of the most dynamic groups in society because sports, being played globally, encompass all race, religion, ethnicity, gender and class.
Youth and youth sport leaders play vital roles in transforming dangerous and violent conflict situations associated with terrorism across the world. Sport has been shown to be highly successful for building bridges and creating friendships among youth.
The team approach in sport leagues can connect youth from different ethnic backgrounds and help youth gain a sense of belonging, experience the importance of teamwork and cooperation first hand, and value fellowship that crosses traditional regional boundaries.

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Benefit Statements / Outcomes

Leadership Provided By:

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On Behalf Of:

  • Canadian Parks and Recreation Association (CPRAA)

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